Streaming Anomaly Detection

January, 2023


Anomaly detection is critical for finding suspicious behavior in innumerable systems. We need to detect anomalies in real-time, i.e. determine if an incoming entity is anomalous or not, as soon as we receive it, to minimize the effects of malicious activities and start recovery as soon as possible. Therefore, online algorithms that can detect anomalies in a streaming manner are essential.

We first propose MIDAS which uses a count-min sketch to detect anomalous edges in dynamic graphs in an online manner, using constant time and memory. We then propose two variants, MIDAS-R which incorporates temporal and spatial relations, and MIDAS-F which aims to filter away anomalous edges to prevent them from negatively affecting the internal data structures.

We then extend the count-min sketch to a Higher-Order sketch to capture complex relations in graph data, and to reduce detecting suspicious dense subgraph problem to finding a dense submatrix in constant time. Using this sketch, we propose four streaming methods to detect edge and subgraph anomalies.

Next, we broaden the graph setting to multi-aspect data. We propose MStream which detects explainable anomalies in multi-aspect data streams. We further propose MStream-PCA, MStream-IB, and MStream-AE to incorporate correlation between features. Finally, we consider multi-dimensional data streams with concept drift and propose MemStream. MemStream leverages the power of a denoising autoencoder to learn representations and a memory module to learn the dynamically changing trend in data without the need for labels. We prove a theoretical bound on the size of memory for effective drift handling. In addition, we allow quick retraining when the arriving stream becomes sufficiently different from the training data. Furthermore, MemStream makes use of two architecture design choices to be robust to memory poisoning.

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