michaelmalak's blog

"Modeling" is its own antonym

There are some words that are contronyms, with "sanction" being the most famous example (half the time meaning "allow" and the other half the time meaning "disallow"). "Modeling" is a contronym.

In the realm of data science, it usually means statistical modeling. This is entirely empirical. But as I wrote long ago on identifying causality, modeling can also mean constructing an engineering model that explains system behavior from first principles. The former is empirical and the latter is theory.